Enhancing Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Using Swarm Intelligence–Based Routing Protocols
Keywords:Wireless sensor networks, SEP, EDEEC, BEENISH, Binary PSO, Binary ABC, energy efficiency
The design of efficient communication protocols for wireless sensor networks has aroused great interest in the research community, especially in the face of the limited energy of sensor nodes and the frequent change in network topology. Routing remains a challenging problem in wireless communications, as deploying or replacing sensor nodes in hazardous environments is difficult. Many studies have been devoted to alleviate certain limitations, such as clustering to maintain network connectivity, injecting heterogeneity to avoid the rapid death of nodes, or incorporating evolution-based optimization methods to find the best network configuration. This work combined heterogeneity and swarm-based optimization to efficiently balance energy consumption between nodes to increase network reliability. Specifically, this work employed the binary particle swarm optimizer and the binary artificial bees colony optimizer to find approximately the optimal set of cluster heads (CHs) with their optimal number. Based on the probabilistic principle of the heterogeneous protocols: SEP, EDEEC, and BEENISH, a new refined formulation of CHs selection using swarm optimization is proposed. The swarm flight is guided towards the best CHs with an objective function representing a good balance between the initial and residual energy of nodes. Compared to the standard heterogeneous protocols SEP, EDEEC, and BEENISH, the developed protocols significantly perform better in terms of stability (FND), the round of half nodes' death (HND), the network lifetime (LND), and energy saving. Indeed, the BABC-SEP was found 31,66% better than SEP in terms of remaining energy percentage, and CHs selection in EDEEC and BEENISH using BABC improved them by more than 20% in the percentage of remaining energy.