Evaluation of Data Mining Techniques and Its Fusion with IoT Enabled Smart Technologies for Effective Prediction of Available Parking Space
Keywords:IoT-Enabled Smart Parking, Parking Sensors, Data Mining, Ensemble Learning, Decision Tree
After experiencing the hard times of pandemic situations we learned that if we could have a smart system that can help us in automatic parking of the vehicles then it could be a great help to society. This idea motivated us to carry out this current work. Though, nowadays, in almost every application domain, IoT techniques are the buzzword. IoT techniques can also be used to achieve efficacy in predicting free available parking space in advance. But the biggest challenge with IoT techniques is that they generate numerous data, which makes its analysis intangible. It was realized that if IoT techniques can be fused with outperforming data mining techniques, more efficient predictions can be performed. Thus, for this purpose, the main objective of our paper is to firstly, select the most appropriate data mining technique, based on performance evaluation, and then to perform prediction of available parking space in advance by fusing it with IoT techniques. Due to the busy schedule, the drivers need to get information about free parking spaces in advance by using smart phones. With the help of this information, it will be easy for the drivers to park their vehicle in the exact location without wasting their precious time and will maintain social distancing in crowded areas too. Data mining techniques can play an important role in the prediction of available parking space, by extracting only relevant and important information when applied to the given dataset. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of five data mining techniques such as the Support Vector Machine, K- Nearest approach, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Ensemble learning approaches are applied on PK lot data set by using Python language. For calculation of result anaconda (spyder) is used as a supportive tool. The main outcome of the paper is to find the technique that will give better results for the prediction of the available space and if we fused data mining techniques with IoT technologies results are improvised. Evaluation parameters that are used for finding the best technique are precision, recall, accuracy, and F1-Score. For numerical calculation of the results, the k-fold cross-validation method is used. As the empirical results are calculated using the Pk lot dataset, the decision tree outperformed the best among all the techniques that are selected for analysis.